This document is addressed to administrators of the countries engaged in process of lowering the Earth’s temperature.
Adam Bednarczyk, MSc in Eng.
Temporarily in Poland
There is no need to reduce the amount of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere in order to decrease the Earth’s temperature. By mounting mirrors or painting objects white on the Earth’s surface to reflect solar energy we can decrease the temperature of the Earth without reducing CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere. After analyzing thermal and solar data, I see it is possible to make the Earth’s temperature go down by increasing the Earth’s albedo only.
We find in various literature : “Vapour is the most important gas absorbing radiation (it causes itself 33% – 66% of the direct greenhouse effect), together with the clouds it is responsible for 66% to 85% of the greenhouse effect. The CO2 itself is responsible for 9% – 26%, while O3 is responsible for 7% and other greenhouse gases (including mainly methane, nitrogen oxides and freons) are responsible for 8% of this effect”.
This greenhouse effect has led to the lack of thermodynamic equilibrium in the atmosphere of the Earth. Each square meter of our planet in each second accumulates 0.9J of energy. How big this amount is, may be understood when we compare it with, for instance, a geothermal heat flux which is approximately 0.09 W/m2 or with the “direct” heating of the atmosphere by human beings: 0.028 W/m2. One can see that the situation of our planet resembles a house when isolation is being put on it. This is just the case – we can demonstrate in many different ways that the radiation imbalance which we can see is caused by the reinforcement of the greenhouse effect as a result of the growth of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
The author of this elaboration is convinced that the existing theories are faulty. Greenhouse effect is not the main reason of increasing the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. According to these theories only decreasing the amount carbon dioxide from burning coal will decrease the increase of the Earth’s atmosphere. The reduction in burning coal will increase amount of the burnt natural gas. While burning of natural gas nitric compounds are created and they, increase greenhouse effect and beside they are very poisonous. The theory of greenhouse effect omits the influence of changes of albedo taking place as a result of human activities. Albedo undergoes large changes in towns with high density of population characterized by a high level of industrialization requiring a lot of energy . The average value of “direct” heating of the atmosphere by a human being: 0.028 W/m2 in such towns may be more than ten times/several dozens higher. This leads to storing huge amounts of heat in buildings, in surface layer of the earth and water reservoirs. That amount of heat in such places is so huge that it causes snow to melt in winter time and it keeps albedo low because lack of snow on the ground surface during the whole winter time in these urbanized areas. That low albedo with the continuous absorption of heat in these areas during nearly whole winter in nearly in all European countries renders cooling of such areas down to temperatures in which the snow cover might be present limiting the absorption of great amounts of solar energy.
The change of the albedo from 0.9 for clean snow to 0.3 of the earth surface without snow, increases the amount of absorbed energy by 0.6×161 W/m2 =96.6 W/m2. It is about one hundred times more than the present average accumulated energy by Earth that is equal 0.9J(sx m2 ).
First let us calculate the whole energy form the activities of the human beings added to the Earth’s atmosphere. According to literature this is 0.028 W/m2.
The amount of the energy for the whole Earth during the whole year is equal:
E = 0.028 W/m2x4 x 3.14 x (6370000m)2x 24hx3600s x 365 days/year=1.25×1017 J/year
From that moment our aim is to find area of the reflective layerr that would remove energy E = 1.25×1017 J/year from the Earth’s atmosphere during one year. To calculate this value, there is an indispensable parameter to find, that is the coefficient for transmission of solar radiation through the earth’s atmosphere. For simplicity it was assumed, that the coefficient for incoming solar radiation to Earth’s surface is the same as for reflected radiation from the Earth’s surface.
Let’s go back to Fig.1 in /lit.1/ where we find:
- 341 W/m2 is the average power of solar energy incoming to Earth
- 161 W/m2 is the average power of solar energy absorbed by the Earth’s surface
- 23 W/m2 is the average power of solar energy reflected by the Earth’s surface
For further calculations we assume:
- Albedo of the used reflective layer = 0.8
- Average roof area of the houses = 100 m2
Values of power 161 W/m2 and 23 W/m2 concern solar energy that reached the Earth’s surface, so the coefficient of transmission of solar energy through the Earth’s atmosphere is:
(161+23)xt/341xt = 0.54 (t – time) and equals 0.54.
In order to eliminate energetic influence of human activities on the Earth the amount of heat from the “direct” heating of the atmosphere by a human being should be removed from Earth surface. That amount is equal E=1.25×1017 J/year. There is the only one way of removing heat energy from the Earth’s surface to galactic space, that is through reflecting solar radiation, taking into account the coefficient of transmission of solar energy through the atmosphere that is equal 0.54. Beside that the coefficient used to determine reflection of solar radiation from the reflective layer that was assumed to be equal 0.8.
We find the value of the reflective area (Ar) from the below equation: (Ar)x161W/m2 x 0.54×365 days/year x 24h/day x 3600s/h x 0.8= 1.25×1017 J/year
(Ar) = 56989360 m2 = 57 km2
The area of 57 km2 is equal to the areas of roofs on 57 thousand of buildings with the assumed roof area of 100 m2. We can also assume that there are one American billion (10exp9) houses with roofs of 100 m2 on the Earth. It means that for reflection of the whole energy coming from the “direct” heating of the atmosphere by a human being it is necessary to cover only one building on each 1754 existing buildings with the reflective layer of the albedo 0.8.
Buildings with locations with the highest use of energy should be selected first.
All publications till now convince that the lowering of amount of burnt coal is the only way for decreasing of the growth in atmospheric temperature. It is forgotten that the burning of natural gas volatizes very poisonous chemical compounds to the atmosphere. Greenhouse effect in the Earth’s atmosphere exists as long as the atmosphere. There are no experimental proofs whatsoever confirming the essential influence of the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere on the increase of the temperature of the atmosphere. Large towns and densely populated areas, highly industrialized and consuming large amounts of energy for production processes are responsible for the increase of the atmosphere temperature. In such areas huge amounts of heat are volatized that are melting snow in a short time after a snowfall. So in that area we have heat gained from production processes and heat gained from huge amounts of solar energy absorbed by the Earth. Those huge amounts of heat have thermal influence on areas neighboring towns or even countries. Nearly the whole Europe is snowless in winter time, so Europe fills a role of a thermal stove for the whole world.
The way glaciers on the North Pole and South Pole melt is against the greenhouse effect theory. On the North Pole melting and breaking takes place from the upper side, but on the South Pole they are breaking from the bottom side. On the North Pole they are melting and breaking from the heat coming from the atmosphere, but on the South Pole they are melting and breaking from the heat coming from water. The greenhouse effect should be the same on the North Pole and South Pole. The heat for melting and breaking glaciers should come from the air only, as on both Poles there are very similar geo- physical conditions. The same activity in two areas with the same physical conditions, should give the same results. The situation is different, so there is no influence of greenhouse effect on Earth’s atmosphere. If you don’t know the reason of the conflict, it must be conflict concerning money. In this case greenhouse effect is used against economies of the countries having large amounts of coal.
Sincerely, Adam Bednarczyk
1. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 90 (2009), p.311-323
The following were used in that elaboration: average solar data for months of March, April and May from /Lit.1/ For winter months results of calculations will be different and will yield lower results.
The aim of this job was to show the method of how to control the atmosphere’s temperature and to show technical possibilities how to carry this out.
Text based on the author’s Polish patent application P.415051